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The term resilience carries multiple meanings in the fields of psychology, counseling, social work, family therapy, and nursing, and though it is operationalized in numerous ways, most definitions center around two major concepts: adversity, and a process of positive adaptation. A common assumption is that resilient individuals are able to “bounce back” from adversity, reaching or surpassing a pre-crisis level of functioning. Antonovsky (1987) termed resilience a …

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